RO - RZ         (Index to JDA's Family Tree, Version 82)


RA - RJ (PREV) :      Roa  :  Rob  :  Robn  :  Roc  :  Rock  :  Rod  :  Roe  :  Rof  :  Rog  :  Roh  :  Roi  :  Roj  :  Rok  :  Rol  :  Rom  :  Ron  :  Roo  :  Rop  :  Roq  :  Ror  :  Ros  :  Rosi  :  Rosw  :  Rot  :  Rou  :  Rov  :  Row  :  Rox  :  Roy  :  Roz  :  Rsc  :  Rsh  :  Rst  :  Rua  :  Rub  :  Ruc  :  Rud  :  Rue  :  Ruf  :  Rug  :  Ruh  :  Rui  :  Rul  :  Rum  :  Run  :  Ruo  :  Rup  :  Rur  :  Rus  :  Rust  :  Rut  :  Ruv  :  Ruw  :  Rux  :  Ruy  :  Ruz  :  Rwt  :  Rya  :  Ryb  :  Ryc  :  Ryd  :  Rye  :  Ryf  :  Ryh  :  Ryk  :  Ryl  :  Rym  :  Ryn  :  Rys  :  Ryt  :  Ryu  :  Ryv  :  Ryz  :  Rzc  :  Rze  :  Rzh  :  Rzi  :     (NEXT) SA - SB
Select a different Surname Index         Select a different Forename Index
 

ROA

ROADES     or     ROADS     ---   (see   RHODES)
 
ROANE

ROANNE

ROANNOIS

ROARCH     or     ROACH     or     ROARK

ROAZHON

ROB

ROBARDS

ROBARTES

ROBB

ROBBERTS

ROBBERTSZEN

ROBBINS     or     ROBINS

ROBBYNS

ROBBYNSDOCHTER

ROBE

ROBEL     ---   (see   ROEBEL)
 
ROBERD

ROBERETS

ROBERGE

ROBERSART

ROBERT

ROBERTET

ROBERTI

ROBERTIAN     or     ROBERTIEN

ROBERTON

ROBERTS

ROBERTSON

ROBERVAL

ROBESSART     or     ROBSART

ROBEY

ROBIE

ROBIESON

ROBILLARD

ROBIN

ROBINETTE     or     ROBINETT

ROBINS     ---   (see   ROBBINS)
 
ROBINSON

ROBISON

ROBLES

ROBNET

ROBOAN

ROBRI

ROBSART     ---   (see also   ROBESSART)

ROBSON

ROBY

ROBYN

ROBYNS

ROCABERTI

ROCAFUL

ROCAS

ROCCA

ROCCAROMANA

ROCCASICONE

ROCCHETTA

ROCCOURT

ROCH     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHA

ROCHDALE

ROCHE     or     ROCH     or     ROCHE ANDRY     or     ROCHE CHALAIS     or     ROCHE CHAMPAGNE     or     ROCHE CHANDRY     or     ROCHE-AYMON     or     ROCHE-BERNARD     or     ROCHE-DERRIEN     or     ROCHE-DES-AUBIERS     or     ROCHE-DRONIOU     or     ROCHE-EN-MONTAGNE     or     ROCHE-EN-REGNIER     or     ROCHE-FERMOY     or     ROCHE-GUYON     or     ROCHE-KARITANIA-THEBAI     or     ROCHE-NOLAY     or     ROCHE-SERVIERE     or     ROCHE-SUR-OGNON     or     ROCHE-SUR-YON     or     ROCHE-TESSON     or     ROCHEBARON

ROCHE ANDRY     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE CHALAIS     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE CHAMPAGNE     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE CHANDRY     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-AYMON     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-BERNARD     or     ROCHE BERNARD     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-DERRIEN     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-DES-AUBIERS     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-DRONIOU     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-EN-MONTAGNE     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-EN-REGNIER     or     ROCHE-REGNIER     or     ROCHE-RENIER     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-FERMOY     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-GUYON     or     ROCHEGUYON     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-KARITANIA-THEBAI     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-NOLAY     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-OIGNON     ---   (see   ROCHE-SUR-OGNON)
 
ROCHE-REGNIER     or     ROCHE-RENIER     ---   (see   ROCHE-EN-REGNIER)
 
ROCHE-SERVIERE     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-SUR-OGNON     or     ROCHE-OIGNON     or     ROCHE-SUR-L' OGNON     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-SUR-YON     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHE-TESSON     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHEAD

ROCHEBARON     or     ROCHE BARON     ---   (see also   ROCHE)

ROCHECHOUART

ROCHEDRAGON

ROCHEFIXE

ROCHEFORD     or     ROCHEFORDE     ---   (see also   ROCKFORD)

ROCHEFORT

ROCHEFORTE

ROCHEFOUCAULD

ROCHEGUYON     ---   (see   ROCHE-GUYON)
 
ROCHEID

ROCHELL

ROCHEMAURE

ROCHEMUR

ROCHEPOSAY     or     ROCHEPOZAY

ROCHEPOT

ROCHER

ROCHES

ROCHESALVE

ROCHESTER

ROCHETTE

ROCHEUX

ROCHEVILLE

ROCHFORD     or     ROCHFORT     or     ROCHFORTE     ---   (see also   ROCKFORD)

ROCHIOU

ROCHLITZ     or     ROCHILTZ     or     RUCHLITZ

ROCHOW

ROCHRIOU

ROCK SAVAGE

ROCKE

ROCKEFELLER     or     ROCKENFELLER

ROCKELFINK

ROCKELL     or     ROCKELE     or     ROCKELLE     or     ROCKHILL     or     ROKELE     or     ROKELL

ROCKENFELLER     ---   (see   ROCKEFELLER)
 
ROCKETT

ROCKFORD     or     ROCHEFORD     or     ROCHFORD     or     ROCKFORDE

ROCKHAUSEN

ROCKHILL     ---   (see   ROCKELL)
 
ROCKHOLD

ROCKINGHAM

ROCKLEY

ROCKLIFFE     or     ROCLIFFE

ROCKSON

ROCKWELL

ROCKWOOD

ROCLIFFE     ---   (see   ROCKLIFFE)
 
ROCQUEGHEM     ---   (see   ROKEGHEM)

RODA

RODBORNE

RODBURGH     or     RODBOROUGH     or     RODBURG

RODBURN

RODDAM     or     RODDHAM     or     RODDOUN     or     RODHAM     or     ROODMAN

RODE

RODECK

RODEIRO

RODEL

RODELENT

RODELHEIM

RODEMACHERN     or     RODEMACK

RODEN     or     RODEN-LIMMER

RODENBERG     or     RODENBERGE

RODENBURGH

RODENDORF

RODENDORFF

RODENEY     ---   (see   RODNEY)
 
RODENHAUSEN

RODENRIJS

RODENROTH

RODENSTEIN

RODER

RODERICK

RODERIXA

RODERLO

RODERN

RODES     ---   (see   RHODES)
 
RODEZ

RODGERS     ---   (see   ROGERS)
 
RODHAM     ---   (see also   RODDAM)

RODICH

RODISHAM

RODLEY

RODMAN

RODNEY     or     RODENEY

RODOVSKY

RODRIGUEZ     or     RODRIGUES     or     RODRIQUEZ

RODSTEEN

RODULF

RODY     or     RODYE

RODZIANKO

ROE

ROEBEL     or     ROBEL

ROELANTS

ROELAS

ROELEN

ROELOFS     or     ROELOFFSE     or     ROELOFFSEN     or     ROELOFSE

ROELT     or     ROET     or     ROUET     or     RUET

ROEPER

ROERE

ROERMOND

ROERO

ROESBERG

ROESBRUGGE

ROESDATTER

ROESKILDE

ROESSLER

ROESTDR

ROESTORP

ROETELN

ROETLEN

ROEUX     or     ROEULX

ROFF

ROFFIGNAC

ROGALAND

ROGATE

ROGENDORF     or     ROGGENDORF

ROGER

ROGERS     or     RODGERS

ROGERSON

ROGERSTONE

ROGGE

ROGGENDORF     ---   (see   ROGENDORF)
 
ROGGENHAUSEN

ROGGENSTEIN

ROGIER

ROGNA

ROGNALDSON

ROGNVALDSSON

ROGRE

ROGUS

ROGVOLODOVICH

ROHAN

ROHANT     or     ROHART     or     ROHAUT     or     ROUHAUT

ROHLE

ROHLITZ

ROHNAU     or     ROHNOWE     or     RONAW

ROHR

ROHRAU

ROHRBACH

ROHRBECK

ROHRDORF

ROHRENFURT

ROHRER

ROHWEDEL

ROIDE

ROILMAN

ROISIN

ROISNY

ROIST

ROITZEN

ROIZ

ROJAS     or     ROXAS

ROKEBY

ROKEGHEM     or     ROCQUEGHEM

ROKELE     or     ROKELL     ---   (see   ROCKELL)
 
ROKELEY

ROKES

ROKESLEY     or     ROKESBY

ROKEWOOD

ROKHAUSEN

ROKYC

ROLAND

ROLEIT

ROLESLEY

ROLET

ROLF

ROLFE

ROLFSDATTER

ROLIM

ROLIN

ROLL

ROLLAINCOURT

ROLLANCOURT

ROLLAND

ROLLANS

ROLLANT

ROLLE

ROLLEGEM

ROLLENCOURT

ROLLESTON     or     RYLESTONE

ROLLINGEN

ROLLINS

ROLLISTON

ROLLOCK     or     ROLLO

ROLLOS     or     RULLOS

ROLLOSON     or     ROLLOSSON

ROLPH

ROLSHAUSEN

ROLSTON

ROLTE     or     ROLT

ROLVOSSON

ROLVSSON

ROLY

ROMA

ROMAES

ROMAEZ

ROMAGNA

ROMAGNANO     or     ROMAGNE

ROMAIN

ROMAN

ROMAN EMPERORS (chronological)

*     We show "Emperors of Rome", whether they reigned in Rome, Ravenna, Constantinople, or elsewhere. We show some usurpers and rivals who may have claimed the title, whether successful or not. We attempt to show co-Emperors, junior Emperors, and Regents for Emperors, though doubtless some have been overlooked. In this list we do not attempt to detail conflicts; you must look elsewhere for such information. For example, when regnal dates overlap, the 2nd Emperor might be a rival to the 1st, or might be a relative who was promoted to serve as co- or junior Emperor with his father.
*     Regnal dates shown usually begin with the first appointment as junior or co-Emperor, if any. When there were multiple reigns by the same Emperor, only first and last dates are shown, with a '*' to denote interruption. Next to the regnal dates, a place or power may be mentioned; this is the realm or source of election.
*     We do not show the Dictator Julius Caesar, nor any rulers of Rome before Julius. We do not show Germanic rulers in Italy: they generally appointed Romans to be figure-head Emperors. We do not show Kings of Emesa who may have claimed the Imperial title. We do not show Turkish Emperors.

Emperors shown by Edward Gibbon in The Decline and Fall are shown with their position (as amended by modern editors) on that list in roman numerals preceding the regnal date. A 'c' is appended to the Roman numeral when the person was a co-Emperor. (When a person served as co-Emperor under two Emperors or in addition to a primary Emperorship, only one number is shown.)

Refer to the List of Central European Emperors for Emperors of the West beginning with Charlemagne in 800 A.D..

We do show the Latin Emperors of Constantinople established in the Fourth Crusade. We also show Emperors in Nicaea, Emperors in Trebizond, and Despots in Epirus, all of whom claimed the Imperial title. Except for the first three Emperors to claim the throne from exile, we do not show Emperors of the East after the Falls of Constantinople in 1453 and Trebizond in 1461.

    Julio-Claudian dynasty
I [27 BC-14]Augustus Octavian
II [14-37]Tiberius
III [37-41]Caligula, son of Germanicus Claudius
IV [41-54]Claudius
V [54-68]Nero, son of Julia `the Younger' Agrippina
    Civil War
VI [68-69]Galba (Servius Sulpicus)
VII [69]Otho (Marcus Salvius)
VIII [69]Vitellius
    Vespasian-Flavian dynasty
IX [69-79]Vespasian
X [79-81]Titus
XI [81-96]Domitian, son of Titus
    Nervan-Antonine dynasty (the `Good Emperors')
XII [96-98]Nerva (Marcus Cocceius)
XIII [98-117]Trajan (Marcus Ulpius)
XIV [117-138]Hadrian, son of Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer
XV [138-161]Antoninus Pius
XVI [161-180]Marcus Aurelius
[161-169]Lucius Verus
[175,Egypt and Syria]Avidius Cassius, Usurper
XVII [177-192]Commodus (Marcus Aurelius)
    Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynasty
XVIII [193, Senate]Pertinax (Publius Helvius)
XIX [193, Praetorians]Didius Julianus
XX [193-211]Septimius Severus
[193-195, Syria]Pescennius Niger
[194?-197, Britain]Clodius Albinus
XXI [198-217]Caracalla
XXI-c [209-211]Geta
XXII [217-218]Macrinus
XXII-c [217-218]Diadumenian
XXIII [218-222]Elagabalus
XXIV [222-235]Alexander Severus
    Crisis of the Third Century
XXV [235-238, Army]Maximinus Thrax
XXVI [238, Africa]Gordian I
XXVI-c [238]Gordian II, son of Gordian I
XXVII [238, Senate]Pupienus Maximus
XXVII-c [238, Senate]Balbinus
XXVIII [238-244]Gordian III
[240]Sabinianus, Usurper
XXIX [244-249]Philip the Arab, grandson of Narpus
[248]Pacatianus, Usurper
[248-249, East]Jotapianus, Usurper
[ca 250]Silbannacus, Usurper
XXX [249-251]Decius
[249-252, East]Priscus, Usurper
[250, Rome]Licinianus, Usurper
[251]Herennius Etruscus
[251]Hostilian, son of Decius
XXXI [251-253, Army]Gallus
[251-253]Volusianus
XXXII [253, Army]Aemilian
XXXIII [253-260, Army]Valerian
XXXIII-c [253-268, Army]Gallienus
[260, Army]Saloninus
[260?]Ingenuus, Usurper
[260]Regalianus, Usurper
[260-261, East]Macrianus Major, Usurper
[260-261]Macrianus Minor, son of Macrianus Major
[260-261]Quietus, son of Macrianus Major
[260-268, Gaul]Postumus, Usurper
[261-262]Mussius Aemilianus, Usurper
[268]Aureolus, Usurper
XXXIV [268-270, Army]Claudius Gothicus
[268, Gaul]Laelianus, Usurper
[269, Gaul]Marius, Usurper
[269-271, Gaul]Victorinus, Usurper
[270-271, Gaul]Domitianus II, Usurper
[270]Quintillus, Usurper, son of Flavius Numerius
XXXV [270-275, Army]Aurelian
[271, Dalmatia]Septimius, Usurper
[271-274, Gaul]Tetricus I
XXXVI [275-276, Senate]Tacitus
XXXVII [276, West]Florianus, brother of Tacitus
XXXVIII [276-282, East]Probus
[280]Julius Saturninus, Usurper
[280, Lugdunum]Proculus, Usurper
[280]Bonosus, Usurper
XXXIX [282-283, Praetorians]Carus
XL [283-285]Carinus, son of Carus
XL-c [283-284]Numerian, son of Carus
    Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty
XLI [284-305, Army]Diocletian
[286-293, Britain]Carausius
XLI-c [286-310*, Army]Maximian
[293-297, Britain]Allectus
XLII [305-311]Galerius
XLII-c [305-306]Constantius Chlorus
[306-307]Severus
XLII-c [306-312, Praetorians]Maxentius, son of Maximian
XLIII [307-337]Constantine I
[309-311?, Africa]Domitius Alexander
XLII-c [308-324, Galerius]Licinius
XLII-c [311-313, Galerius]Maximinus Daia
[316-317, East]Valerius Valens
[324, East]Sextus Martinianus
XLIV [337-340]Constantine II, son of Constantine I
XLV [337-361]Constantius II
XLIV-c [337-350]Constans
[350-353, Army]Magnentius, Usurper
[350?]Vetranio
[350?]Nepotianus
XLVI [361-363]Julian, son of Flavius Julius Constantius
XLVII [363-364, Army]Jovian
    Valentinian dynasty
XLVIII [364-375, Army]Valentinian I
XLIX [365-378, East]Valens, son of Gratien `the Old'
[365-366]Procopius, Usurper
XLVIII-c [367-383]Gratian
XLIX-c [375-392]Valentinian II, son of Valentinian I
    Theodosian dynasty (Theodosius was the last Emperor to rule both West and East.)
L [379-395, West & East]Theodosius I
[383-388, West, Army]Magnus Maximus, Usurper
LXII [383-408, East]Arcadius
[386-388, West]Flavius Victor, son of Magnus Maximus
[392-394, West]Eugenius, Usurper
LI [393-423, West]Honorius
[407-411, Britain]Constantine III, Usurper
LXIII [408-450, East]Theodosius II
[409-411, West]Constans II, son of Constantine III
[409-415*, West]Priscus Attalus, Usurper
[409-411, Spain]Maximus, Usurper
[411-413, West]Jovinus, Usurper
[412-413, Jovinus]Sebastianus
[421, West]Constantius III
[423-425, West]Joannes
LII [425-455, West]Valentinian III
LXIV [450-457, East]Marcian
LIII [455, West]Petronius Maximus
LIV [455-456, West]Avitus
    Ricimer was effective ruler in the West; he appointed and deposed the next four Emperors of the West.
    In the East, the Leonid dynasty begins.
LV [457-461, West]Majorian
LXV [457-474, East]Leo I
LVI [461-465, West]Libius Severus
LVII [467-472, West]Anthemius
LVIII [472, West]Olybrius
LIX [473-474, West]Glycerius (appointed by Gundobad)
LXVI [474, East]Leo II
LX [474-480, West]Julius Nepos (appointed by Leo I)
LXVII [474-491, East]Zeno
LXI [475-476, West]Romulus Augustus
    Romulus Augustus was the last Emperor of the West until Charlemagne. All of the following were Emperors of the East (though they controlled parts of Italy and continued to use "Emperor of Rome" as their title).
[475-476]Basiliscus, son of Leo I's father-in-law
[479]Marcian, attempted Usurper
[484-488]Leontius, attempted Usurper
LXVIII [491-518]Anastasius I
[491-492]Longinus, Rival, son of Rusumbladeotes of Isauria
[512]Areobindus, refused to serve
    Justinian dynasty
LXIX [518-527]Justin I, son of Flavius Justinus
[518]Theocritus, Rival
LXX [527-565]Justinian I
[529, Samaria]Julianus ben Sabar
[532]Hypatius, Rival, son of Secundinus
[536-545, Africa]Stotzas
[537, Mesopotamia]John Cottistis, Usurper
LXXI [565-578]Justin II
LXXII [578-582]Tiberius II Constantine
LXXIII [582-602]Maurice
LXXIV [602-610]Phocas
    Heraclian dynasty (Heraclius changed the official Imperial language from Latin to Greek.)
LXXV [610-641]Heraclius
[610-611]Comentiolus, brother of Phocas
[617, Naples]John of Conza, Usurper
[619]Eleutherius
[635]John Athalarichos, son of Heraclius
LXXVI [641]Constantine III
[641]Heraklonas
LXXVII [641-668]Constans II
[642, Rome]Maurikios Chartoularios
[644]Valentinus, attempted Usurper
[646-647, Carthage]Gregory
[650-652, Ravenna]Olympius
[651-652, Armenia]Theodoros Pasagnathes, attempted Usurper
[665-666, Carthage]Eleutherios
[667-668, Anatolia]Saborios
LXXVIII [668-685]Constantine IV
[668-669]Mezezius
LXXIX [681-711*]Justinian II
    Twenty Years' Anarchy
LXXX [695-698]Leontios
LXXXI [698-705]Tiberius III (Apsimar)
LXXXII [711-713, Army]Philippikos Bardanes
LXXXIII [713-715, Opsicians]Anastasios II
LXXXIV [715-717, Opsicians]Theodosios III
    Isaurian dynasty
LXXXV [717-741]Leo III
LXXXVI [741-775]Constantine V
[742-743]Artabasdos
[742-743]Nicephorus, poss. co-Emperor
LXXXVII [775-780]Leo IV
LXXXVIII [780-797]Constantine VI
LXXXIX [797-802]Irene of Athens
In 800 the title "Emperor of the West" came back into use.
[800-814, West]Charles I the Great
Refer to the List of Central European Emperors for Holy Roman Emperors after Charlemagne.
    Nikephorian dynasty
XC [802-811]Nikephoros I
XCI [811-812]Staurakios, son of Nikephoros I
XCII [812-813]Michael I Rangabe
XCIII [813-820]Leo V
[813-820]Constantine (Symbatios), co-Emperor, son of Leo V
    Amorian dynasty
XCIV [820-829]Michael II
XCV [821-842]Theophilos
XCVI [842-867]Michael III
[842-856, Regent]Theodora, mother of Michael III
[862-866, Regent]Bardas, uncle of Michael III
    Macedonian dynasty
XCVII [867-886]Basil I
XCVIII [886-912]Leo VI
XCVIII-c [912-913]Alexander III, son of Basil I
XCIX [908-959]Constantine VII
XCIX-c [920-944]Romanos I
[921-931]Christopher I
C [959-963]Romanos II
CI [963-1025]Basil II
CI-c [963-969]Nikephoros II
CI-c [969-976]John I
[976-979, Anatolia]Bardas Skleros, Rival
CII [1025-1028]Constantine VIII
[1028-1050]Zoe
CIII [1028-1034]Romanos III, husband of Zoe
CIV [1034-1041]Michael IV, husband of Zoe
CV [1041-1042]Michael V, nephew of Michael IV
CVI [1042-1056]Theodora, daughter of Constantine VIII
CVII [1042-1055]Constantine IX
CVIII [1056-1057]Michael VI
    Komnenid-Doukid dynasties; Botaneiates
CIX [1057-1059]Isaac I Komnenos
CX [1059-1067]Constantine X Doukas
[1067?-1088]John Doukas, Caesar
CXI [1068-1071]Romanos IV (Doukas)
CXII [1067-1078]Michael VII Doukas, son of Constantine X
CXIV [1078-1081]Nikephoros III (Botaneiates)
CXV [1081-1118]Alexios I Komnenos
[1081-1087]Konstantios Doukas, co-Emperor
CXVI [1092-1143]John II Komnenos
[1122-1142]Alexios Komnenos, co-Emperor
CXVII [1143-1180]Manuel I Komnenos
CXVIII [1180-1183]Alexios II Komnenos
[1180-1183, Regent]Marie of Antioch
CXIX [1183-1185]Andronikos I Komnenos
    Angelid dynasty
CXX [1185-1204*]Isaac II
CXXI [1195-1203]Alexios III
CXXI-c [1203-1204]Alexios IV, son of Isaac II
CXXII [1204]Alexios V
    In 1204, Knights returning from the Fourth Crusade took Constantinople and established the Latin Empire. Emperors of the Laskarid dynasty continued to claim the Empire from their base in Nicaea; the Megas Komnene family claimed from Trebizond; another branch of Komnenos and their successors claimed from Epirus.

(In the following, when no qualifier is shown in the date field, it is a Greek-speaking Emperor who ruled Constantinople.)

[1204]Constantine XI, son of Manuel Laskaris
CXXIII [1204-1205, Latin]Baldwin I
[1204-1222, Trebizond]Alexios I Megas Komnenos
[1205-1214, Epirus]Michael I Komnenos Doukas
CXXVIII [1205-1222, Nicaea]Theodore I
CXXIV [1206-1216, Latin]Henry, son of Baldwin V of Hainault
[1214-1230, Epirus]Theodore Komnenos Doukas
CXXV [1216-1217, Latin]Peter
[1217-1219, Latin]Yolande
CXXVI [1221-1228, Latin]Robert, son of Peter
CXXIX [1222-1254, Nicaea]John III
[1222-1235, Trebizond]Andronikos I Gidos, son-in-law of Alexios I
CXXVII [1228-1273*, Latin]Baldwin II, in exile after 1261
CXXVII-c [1229-1237, Latin]John
[1230-1271, Epirus]Michael II Komnenos Doukas
[1235-1238, Trebizond]Ioannis I Megas Komnenos, son of Alexios I
[1238-1263, Trebizond]Manuel I Megas Komnenos
CXXX [1254-1258, Nicaea]Theodore II
CXXXI [1258-1261, Nicaea]John IV, son of Theodore II
[1258, Regent]George Mouzalon
    In 1261 Michael VIII recaptured Constantinople, uniting it with his Empire in Nicaea, thus restoring the Byzantine Empire and founding the Palaiologan dynasty. We also show the "Latin" claimants, though the title carried no power, and, since Trebizond retained its independence, the "Emperors" of that state.
CXXXII [1259-1282]Michael VIII
CXXXIII [1261-1328] Andronikos II
[1263-1266, Trebizond]Andronikos II Megas Komnenos, son of Manuel I
[1266-1280, Trebizond]Georgios Megas Komnenos, son of Manuel I
[1271-1297, Epirus]Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas
[1273-1283, Latin in exile]Philip I
[1280-1297*, Trebizond]Ioannes II Megas Komnenos
CXXXIII-c [1281-1320]Michael IX
[1283-1307, Latin in exile]Catherine I
[1284-1285, Trebizond]Theodora Megale Komnene
[1297-1318, Epirus]Thomas I Komnenos Doukas, son of Nikephoros I
[1297-1330, Trebizond]Alexios II Megas Komnenos
[1301-1307, Latin in exile]Charles of Valois
[1307-1346, Latin in exile]Catherine II
[1313-1332, Latin in exile]Philip II
CXXXIV [1316-1341]Andronikos III
[1318-1323, Epirus]Nicholas Orsini, son of John (I) Orsini
[1323-1335, Epirus]John (II) Orsini
[1330-1332, Trebizond]Andronikos III Megas Komnenos, son of Alexios II
[1332, Trebizond]Manuel II Megas Komnenos, grandson of Alexios II
[1332-1340, Trebizond]Basileios Megas Komnenos
[1335-1359*, Epirus]Nikephoros II Orsini, son of John (II)
[1340-1341, Trebizond]Eirene Palaiologina
CXXXV [1341-1391*]John V
CXXXV-c [1341-1354]John VI
[1341-1342, Trebizond]Anna Megale Komnene, daughter of Alexios II
[1342-1344, Trebizond]Ioannes III Megas Komnenos, grandson of Ioannes II
[1341-1349*, Trebizond]Michael Megas Komnenos, son of Ioannes II
[1346-1364, Latin in exile]Robert II, son of Philip II
[1349-1390, Trebizond]Alexios III Megas Komnenos
[1351-1357]Matthew
CXXXV-c [1352-1379]Andronikos IV
[1359-1366, Epirus]Simeon Uros Palaiologos
[1364-1373, Latin in exile]Philip III, son of Philip II
[1367-1384, Epirus]Thomas II Preljubovic
[1373-1383, Latin in exile]James of Baux, son of Francois de Baux
CXXXVI [1373-1425]Manuel II
CXXXVI-c [1376-1390]John VII
[1383-1384, Latin in exile]Louis of Anjou
[1383-1387, Latin in exile]John of Artois
    Neither Louis of Anjou nor John of Artois ever accepted their Imperial title so the "Latin" claim to the Empire disappeared.
[1384-1385, Epirus]Maria Angelina Doukaina Palaiologina
[1390-1416, Trebizond]Manuel III Megas Komnenos
[1385-1411, Epirus]Esau de' Buondelmonti
[1403-1407]Andronikos V, son of John VII
[1411, Epirus]Giorgio de' Buondelmonti
[1411-1429, Epirus]Carlo I Tocco, son of Leonardo (I) TOCCO
CXXXVII [1416-1448]John VIII, son of Manuel II
[1416-1429, Trebizond]Alexios IV Megas Komnenos
[1429-1459, Trebizond]Ioannes IV Megas Komnenos
    The Ottoman conquest of the Epirus domains began early in the reign of Carlo II, and was essentially complete by 1479.
[1429-1448, Epirus]Carlo II Tocco
[1448-1479, Epirus]Leonardo (III) Tocco
CXXXVIII [1449-1453]Constantine XI, son of Manuel II
    In 1453, Constantinople fell to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. (Trebizond fell in 1461.) Over the next several decades, three men claimed the throne from exile.
[1453-1460]Demetrios, claimant, son of Manuel II
[1453-1465]Thomas, claimant
[1459-1461, Trebizond]David Megas Komnenos, son of Alexios IV
[1465-1502]Andreas, claimant, son of Thomas
    The Ottoman Emperors proclaimed themselves to be Emperors of Rome.
[1453-1918+, Ottoman]Mehmed II, Sultan of Turkey and his successors

ROMAN EMPIRE     ---   (see   ROME)
 
ROMANEZ

ROMANI     ---   (see   ROME)
 
ROMANIA     or     ROMANIAE     or     ROUMANIA     or     RUMANIA     or     RUMANIEN

ROMANIZ

ROMANO

ROMANOV     or     ROMANOVA     or     ROMANOW     or     ROMANOWA

ROMANOVICH     or     ROMANOVNA

ROMANOW     or     ROMANOWA     ---   (see   ROMANOV)
 
ROMANS     ---   (see   ROME)
 
ROMANSHORN

ROMARE     or     ROMARA     or     ROUMARE     or     ROUMERE

ROMARIQUES

ROMBERG

ROMBERGER

ROME     or     ROMAN EMPIRE     or     ROMANI     or     ROMANS

ROMEE

ROMELE

ROMELLI     or     ROMELLY     ---   (see   RUMILLY)
 
ROMENAL

ROMENE

ROMEO

ROMER

ROMERU     ---   (see   RAMERU)
 
ROMEU

ROMEYN

ROMFORTH

ROMILLY

ROMMEL

ROMMENY

ROMMERSDORF

ROMMERSWALLE

ROMNAYE

ROMNEY

ROMNITZ

ROMODANOVSKAYA

ROMROD

ROMROI

ROMRUG

ROMSEY

RON

RONALDSON

RONAW     ---   (see   ROHNAU)
 
RONCESVALLES

RONCHEROLLES

RONCHEVILLE

RONDEAU

RONDINELLI

RONDORF

RONE

RONEY

RONGEMANN

RONGNION     or     RONGNON

RONING

RONNE

RONNEBURG

RONNECK

RONNOW     or     RONNOV

RONOW     or     RONOV     or     RONOVA

RONQUEROLLES

RONSARD

RONSART

RONSBERG

RONSE

RONTON

ROO

ROODE

ROODES     ---   (see   RHODES)
 
ROOKE

ROOKES

ROOKESWOOD

ROOKHURST

ROOKWOOD

ROONEY

ROOS     ---   (see   ROS)
 
ROOSA

ROOSE

ROOSENBACH

ROOSEVELT

ROOSMALE

ROOT     or     ROOTE

ROOTES

ROOTH

ROOVER     ---   (see   ROVER)
 
ROOVERE

ROOYEN

ROPA

ROPE

ROPER

ROPESLEY

ROPP

ROPPICHAU

ROPURG

ROQUE

ROQUEBROU

ROQUEFEUIL

ROQUEFORT

ROQUELAURE

ROQUEMAURE

ROQUES

ROQUI

ROREKSON

RORGON

RORIKSDOTTER

RORIKSSON

RORTE

RORTHAIS

RORTHEY

ROS     or     ROOS

ROSA

ROSALES

ROSAY

ROSCARROCK

ROSCELYN     or     ROSCELIN     or     ROSCELINE

ROSCH-SUNNTBERG

ROSCOMMON

ROSDORF

ROSDORP

ROSE

ROSEBERY

ROSEBURG

ROSEE

ROSEGG

ROSEL

ROSELLER

ROSELLON     ---   (see   ROUSSILLON)
 
ROSEMAND

ROSEMOND

ROSEN

ROSENAU

ROSENAUW

ROSENBAUM

ROSENBERG     or     ROZMBERGA     or     ROZMBERKA

ROSENBUCHEL

ROSENBURG

ROSENDAL

ROSENEGG

ROSENFELD

ROSENGRAVE

ROSENHAGEN

ROSENHARTZ     or     ROSENHARZ

ROSENHEIM

ROSENHOLM

ROSENKRANTZ

ROSENSTRALE

ROSENTHAL     or     ROZMITAL     or     ROZMITALU

ROSENVELT

ROSETTI

ROSEWELL

ROSEY

ROSGILL

ROSIERES

ROSIERS

ROSIMBOS

ROSINDALE

ROSINGREVE

ROSKELYN

ROSLER

ROSLIN     ---   (see   ROSSLYN)
 
ROSMADEC

ROSMANDEROS

ROSMEL

ROSMERIN

ROSNY

ROSNYVINEN

ROSOMONI

ROSOY     or     ROSROY     or     ROZOY     or     ROZOY-CHAUMONT

ROSPIGLIOSI

ROSS     or     ROSSE

ROSSA

ROSSAITH

ROSSALE

ROSSANA

ROSSANO

ROSSARED

ROSSAU

ROSSDORF

ROSSEL     or     ROSSELL

ROSSELER

ROSSELLS

ROSSELYN

ROSSEM

ROSSGILL

ROSSI

ROSSIGNOL

ROSSILLON

ROSSILON

ROSSING

ROSSITER

ROSSLER

ROSSLYN     or     ROSLIN

ROSSMANDRESS

ROSSO

ROSSRIETH

ROSSUM

ROST

ROSTAING

ROSTANG

ROSTHERNE

ROSTIS

ROSTISLAVICH     or     ROSTISLAVITCH

ROSTISLAVNA     or     ROSTISLAVA     or     ROSTISLAWNA     or     ROTISLAVNA

ROSTKE

ROSTOCK

ROSTOW     or     ROSTOV     or     ROSTOWSKAJA     or     ROSTOWSKI

ROSTRENEN

ROSTRUP

ROSWAROWICE

ROSYTH

ROT     or     ROTA     or     ROTT

ROTBERG

ROTELEY

ROTEN SCHILD     ---   (see also   ROTHSCHILD)

ROTENBURG

ROTENHAN

ROTENHERING     or     ROTENHERYNG     or     ROTHENHERING

ROTENSTEIN

ROTER     or     ROTOR

ROTERMUND

ROTFELD

ROTGERSDOTTER

ROTH

ROTHAL     ---   (see   ROTTAL)
 
ROTHASS

ROTHBACH

ROTHE

ROTHELIN

ROTHEM

ROTHEN

ROTHENBERG

ROTHENBURG     or     ROTHENBOURG

ROTHENHERING     ---   (see   ROTENHERING)
 
ROTHERFIELD

ROTHERFORTH

ROTHERHAM

ROTHERWAS

ROTHES

ROTHESAY

ROTHFELSEN

ROTHIEMURCHUS

ROTHKIRCH

ROTHLEBEN

ROTHSCHILD     or     ROTEN SCHILD

ROTHSCHUTZ

ROTHWELL

ROTISLAVNA     ---   (see   ROSTISLAVNA)
 
ROTMER     or     ROTMERS

ROTOMAGE

ROTOR     ---   (see   ROTER)
 
ROTROU

ROTSCHEN

ROTSELAER     or     ROTSELAAR

ROTSTOCK

ROTT     ---   (see   ROT)
 
ROTTAL     or     ROTHAL

ROTTENBERG

ROTTENBURG

ROTTENEGG

ROTTENHAN

ROTTORF

ROTZMUL

ROUAULT

ROUBAIX

ROUCESTRE

ROUCLE

ROUCLIFFE

ROUCY     or     ROUCI

ROUE

ROUEN

ROUER

ROUERE

ROUERGUE     or     ROUERGE     or     ROUERGES     or     ROUERGUES     or     ROURGE

ROUET     ---   (see   ROELT)
 
ROUGE

ROUGEMONT

ROUGET

ROUGHAM

ROUGHEY

ROUHA

ROUHAUT     ---   (see   ROHANT)
 
ROUILLARD

ROULEAU

ROULERS

ROULETTE

ROULIERS

ROULLAYS

ROULSTON

ROUMANIA     ---   (see   ROMANIA)
 
ROUMARA

ROUMARE     ---   (see   ROMARE)
 
ROUMERE     ---   (see   ROMARE)
 
ROUNCEREY

ROUNCEY

ROUND

ROUNDY

ROUPONI     or     RUBENID     or     RUPENID     or     RUPENIDEN

ROUPOVSKY     or     ROUPOW

ROUPOW     ---   (see   ROUPOVSKY)
 
ROURGE     ---   (see   ROUERGUE)
 
ROUSCH

ROUSCOUE

ROUSE     or     ROUS     or     ROWSE

ROUSSEAU

ROUSSEL

ROUSSELET

ROUSSELIN

ROUSSILLON     or     ROSELLON     or     ROUSILLION     or     ROUSILLON     or     ROUSSILON

ROUSSIN

ROUSSY

ROUTH

ROUTHE

ROUVEROY     or     ROUVROY     ---   (see also   ST. SIMON)

ROUVILLE

ROUX

ROUY

ROUZET

ROV

ROVEDO

ROVELASCA

ROVER     or     REOVER     or     ROOVER

ROVERE

ROVIERES

ROVIGNAN

ROW

ROWALLAN

ROWBURY

ROWDON

ROWE

ROWELL

ROWELLES     ---   (see   ROWLLES)
 
ROWLAND

ROWLANDS

ROWLESBY

ROWLETT

ROWLEY

ROWLING

ROWLINGE

ROWLLES     or     ROWELLES

ROWLOWE

ROWNEY

ROWNING

ROWSE     ---   (see   ROUSE)
 
ROWSON     ---   (see   RAWSON)

ROXAS     ---   (see   ROJAS)
 
ROXBURGH     or     ROXBURGHE

ROXIN

ROXLAWE

ROXTON

ROXTUN

ROY

ROYAL     or     ROYALL

ROYANS     or     PONT-EN-ROYANS     or     ROZONS

ROYCE

ROYCROFT

ROYDEN     ---   (see also   ROYDON)

ROYDON     or     ROYDEN

ROYE

ROYER

ROYERE

ROYLE

ROYNON

ROYRAND

ROYS

ROYSTORP

ROZDALOVIC

ROZEL

ROZEN

ROZGONY     or     ROZGONYI

ROZIER

ROZMBERGA     or     ROZMBERKA     ---   (see   ROSENBERG)
 
ROZMITAL     or     ROZMITALU     ---   (see   ROSENTHAL)
 
ROZNOWA

ROZONS     ---   (see   ROYANS)
 
ROZOY     or     ROZOY-CHAUMONT     ---   (see   ROSOY)

RSHTOUNI     or     RSCHTOUNI     or     RSHTOUNIK     or     RSTUNI     ---   (see also   ARTSRUNI)

RUA

RUADH

RUBCA

RUBELIN

RUBELLIUS

RUBEMPRE

RUBENACH

RUBENID     ---   (see   ROUPONI)
 
RUBENTEL

RUBI

RUBIN

RUBLE

RUBO

RUBOTTOM

RUBY

RUCCELLAI

RUCELLAI

RUCHE

RUCHHEUBT     or     RUCHHOUPT     ---   (see also   RAUCHHAUPT)

RUCHLITZ     ---   (see   ROCHLITZ)
 
RUCK

RUCKE

RUCKERSDORF

RUCKERSHAUSEN

RUD

RUDA

RUDALL

RUDBECKIUS

RUDBORNE

RUDBOURNE

RUDD

RUDDER

RUDDOCK

RUDE

RUDEL

RUDELL

RUDEN

RUDENBERG

RUDENDORF

RUDENOWE

RUDESHEIM

RUDGELEY

RUDHALL

RUDHAM

RUDIGER

RUDIGERI

RUDIN

RUDING     or     RUDINGE

RUDNIK

RUDOLFSEGG

RUDOLPH

RUDSTON     or     RUDSTONE

RUDT

RUEBER

RUEGEN     ---   (see   RUGEN)
 
RUEL

RUELAN     or     RUELLAN

RUELLE

RUES

RUESDORF

RUET     ---   (see   ROELT)
 
RUEYRES

RUFA

RUFEY

RUFF

RUFFEC

RUFFEETS

RUFFEY

RUFFIN

RUFFINI

RUFFLAI

RUFFO

RUFINUS

RUFIUS

RUFO

RUFUS     or     RUFFUS

RUG

RUGALFSSON

RUGELEY

RUGEN     or     REOGEN     or     RHUGEN     or     RUEGEN

RUGGE     or     RUGG

RUGGLES     or     RUGGELE

RUGHEIM

RUGHOYBIT     ---   (see also   RAUCHHAUPT)

RUGIJ     or     RUGIS     or     RUGLIJ

RUGLEN

RUH

RUHE

RUHEL

RUHN

RUHR

RUIJCHROCK

RUIJSCH

RUIJSSEN     ---   (see   RUYSSCHEN)
 
RUIJTENBORCH     ---   (see   RUYTENBORCH)
 
RUINE

RUINEN

RUISBROEK

RUISMONT

RUISSCHENBERG

RUITENBERG

RUITENBERGH     ---   (see   RUYTENBORCH)
 
RUIZ

RUL

RULAND

RULANT

RULICKE

RULIN

RULLE

RULLOS     ---   (see   ROLLOS)

RUM

RUMAH

RUMAN

RUMANIA     or     RUMANIEN     ---   (see   ROMANIA)
 
RUMBEEK

RUMBYAETTEN     or     RUMBYATTEN

RUME

RUMELI     or     RUMELY     ---   (see   RUMILLY)
 
RUMELIA

RUMENEL

RUMES

RUMESNIL

RUMIGNY     or     FLORENNES     or     RUMINGNY

RUMILLY     or     REMILLY     or     ROMELLI     or     ROMELLY     or     RUMELI     or     RUMELY

RUMINGNY     ---   (see   RUMIGNY)
 
RUMMELSBURG

RUMMEN

RUMOHR     or     RUMSOHR

RUMP

RUMPS     or     RUMPST

RUMRILL

RUMSCHOTTEL

RUMSCHUTTEL

RUMSEY

RUMSOHR     ---   (see   RUMOHR)
 
RUMY

RUNAN

RUNCHAMP

RUNDELL

RUNGE

RUNKEL

RUNNER

RUNTENBERG

RUNTZ

RUNYON

RUOFF

RUPARIE

RUPE

RUPELLA

RUPEN

RUPENID     or     RUPENIDEN     ---   (see   ROUPONI)
 
RUPPA

RUPPAU

RUPPEL

RUPPERSDORF

RUPPES

RUPPIN     ---   (see   LINDAU)

RURIKIDE     or     RIURIKOVICH     or     RURIKID     or     RURIKOVICH     or     RURIKOVNA     or     RURYKOWICZ     ---   (see also   KIEV)

RURIKSSON

RURINGS

RURYKOWICZ     ---   (see   RURIKIDE)

RUS

RUS (Kievan Rus)     ---   (see   KIEV)
 
RUSCHEPOL

RUSCHPOL

RUSCO

RUSCOE

RUSENBACH

RUSH

RUSHALE

RUSHALL

RUSHAM

RUSHBROKE     or     RUSHBROOK     or     RUSHBROOKE

RUSHE

RUSHEDALL

RUSHOUT

RUSHTON

RUSHWORTH

RUSK

RUSKY

RUSLAND     ---   (see   RUSSIA)
 
RUSO

RUSOR     or     RUSORY

RUSPOLI

RUSS

RUSSAL

RUSSAULT

RUSSBART

RUSSEGG

RUSSEL

RUSSELL

RUSSELPAFFE

RUSSIA, Rulers of (chronological)

*     We make no attempt to detail complicated Russian history or to list competing princes. We just strive to show sovereigns in Novgorod, Kiev, Vladimir and Moscow, and a few of the most famous other princes. Even as is, there are many shown without pedigree (help, please) and doubtless errors in some of the pedigrees shown.
*     We ignore rule by Asiatics, Lithuanians, Republics and Soviets.
*     The symbol ( * ) before the realm means the Czar is omitted from many regnal lists. The symbol ( * ) after the regnal dates means the reign was interrupted and did not include the entire period between first and last regnal years.

 NORSE Ruthenia, before Rurik
[Ladoga, 600+ - ?] Svaflami (possibly legendary)
[Ladoga, ? - 647?] Ivar Wide-fathom
[Ladoga, ca 660 - ?] Harald Hildetand
[Slovenich Novgorod, ca 660] Sloven
[Ladoga, ? - 719?] Radbard
[Slovenich Novgorod, ?-ca 725] Ivar `the Glorious'
[Slovenich Novgorod, ca 725-?] Vandal
[Slovenich Novgorod, ca 750?] Burivoy
[Gardarike, ca 750-ca 770] Aldeigja
[Novgorod, ca 770?] Randver
[Gardarike, ca 775-ca 800] Bravlin
[Novgorod, ca 800?] Ratibor
[Gardarike, ca 810-838?] Dir Bjorn
[Novgorod, ?-859] Gostomysl the Reasonable
[Novgorod, 859-872*] Vadim I the Brave
[Khaganate of Rus, 838?-862?] Xan-Tuvan Dyggvi, poss. descendant of T'ung Yabghu Ziebal of the Khazars

 RURIKID Ruthenia
[Novgorod, ca 860-880*] Riurik
[Kievan Rus, 879-945*] Igor I
*     Kievan Rus was ruled by Swedish intruders ca 864 - ca 882
[Swedish Kiev, ca 864-882] Askold of Sweden
[Swedish Kiev, 882?] Dir
*     The Swedes were defeated by Oleg, who moved the Rurikid capital to Kiev. Oleg ruled as Regent for the boy-King Igor I.
[Novgorod, then Kiev, 882-912] Oleg I `the Seer' of Denmark
[Kiev, 912-945] Igor I (see above)
[Regent, 945-962] Olga
[Kievan Rus, 962-972] Sviatoslav I
[Kievan Rus, 972-980] Yaropolk I
[Kievan Rus, 980-1015] Vladimir I
[Kievan Rus, 1015-1019] Sviatopolk I, son of Vladimir I
[Kiev & Novgorad, 1019-1054] Yaroslav I
[Kievan Rus, 1024-1036?] Mstislav I the Brave, son of Vladimir I
[Kievan Rus, 1054-1078*] Iziaslav I
[Kievan Rus, 1068-1069] Vseslav
[Kievan Rus, 1073-1076] Sviatoslav II
[Kievan Rus, 1078-1093] Vsevolod I
[Kievan Rus, 1093-1113] Sviatopolk II
[Kievan Rus, 1113-1125] Vladimir II `Monomakh'
[Kievan Rus, 1125-1132] Mstislav I
*     After Mstislav I, several principalities competed for dominance of Kievan Rus.
[Kievan Rus, 1132-1139] Yaropolk II, son of Vladimir II
[Kievan Rus, 1139, 1151-1154] Vyacheslav son of Vladimir II
[Kievan Rus, 1146] Igor II, son of Oleg Mikhail
[Kiev, 1146-1154*] Iziaslav II
[Kiev & Moscow, 1149-1157*] Yuri (I) Dolgoruky, founded Moscow
[Kiev, 1154-1167*] Rostislav I
[Kiev, 1155-1162*] Iziaslav III, son of David of Chernigov
[Kiev, 1167-1169] Mstislav II
[Berestye, 1167] Basil I
[Suzdal-Vladimir, 1168-1174] Andrei Bogolyubsky
[Kiev, 1169-1171*] Gleb, son of Yuri (I) Dolgoruky
[*Kiev, 1171] Vladimir II Mstislavich, son of Mystislaw I
[Kiev, 1171] Mikhalko, son of Yuri (I) Dolgoruky
[Kiev, 1171-1177*] Roman
[Kiev, 1172-1211*] Rurik II (Rostislavich)
[Kiev, 1173] Vsevolod III
[Kiev, 1173-1194*] Sviatoslav III
[Kiev, 1174-1180*] Yaroslav II
[Vladimir, 1174-1176*] Michael I, is he same as Mikhalko above??
[Vladimir, 1175] Mstislav IV
[*Vladimir, 1175] Yaropolk
[Vladimir, 1176-1212] Vsevolod III
[Galicia, 1199-1205] Roman II
[Kiev, 1202-1214*] Ingvar of Dorogobug, son of Yaroslav II
[Kiev, 1204-1206] Rostislav II, son of Rurik II
[Galicia, 1205-1264] Daniel
[Kiev, 1206-1212*] Vsevolod III/IV
[Vladimir, 1212-1238*] Yuri (George) II the Saint, son of Vsevolod III
[Kiev, 1214-1223] Mstislav III
[Vladimir, 1216-1218] Konstantin I
[Kiev, 1223-1235] Vladimir III, son of Rurik II
[Kiev, 1235-1236] Iziaslav IV, son of Vladimir Igorevich
[Kiev, 1236-1238] Yaroslav III, poss. son of Roman, son of Gleb of Ryazan
[Vladimir, 1238-1246] Yaroslav II
[Kiev, 1238-1239] Mikhail
[Kiev, 1239] Rostislav III
[Kiev, 1239-1240] Danylo
*     In 1240, Kievan Rus was conquered by the Mongol empire.
[Vladimir, 1246-1249] Svyatoslav III, son of Vsevolod III
[Moscow, 1247-1248] Michael II Khorobrit `the Brave'
[Moscow, Gorodets-Radilov, 1249-1252] Andrei II
[Kiev, 1249 & Moscow, 1252-1263] Alexander Nevsky
[Galicia, 1264-1301] Lev I
[Moscow, 1264-1271 & Kiev, 1271] Yaroslav III/IV
[Moscow, 1272-1277] Vassili, son of Alexander Nevski
[Moscow, 1277-1281] Dimitri I, son of Alexander Nevski
[Moscow, 1281-1283] Andrei III, son of Alexander Nevski
[Moscow & Vladimir, 1283-1303] Daniel
[Galicia, 1301-1308] Yuri I
[Moscow, 1303-1325] Yuri III (aka George I Red-Hair), son of Daniel
[Tver & Vladimir, 1304-1318] Michael III the Saint
[Tver & Vladimir, 1322-1326] Demetrius II `the Menacing Eyes', son of Michael III the Saint
[Moscow, 1325-1341] Ivan I
[Moscow, 1341-1353] Semeon the Proud, son of Ivan I
[Moscow, 1353-1359] Ivan II
[Dmitrov, Moscow, 1359-1389] Dmitri Donskoi
[Suzdal, Vladimir, 1360-1362] Demetrius III
[Kiev, 1362-?] held by Lithuania under Algirdas Jagellon
[Tver, Vladimir, 1371-1375] Michael IV, son of Alexander II
[Moscow, 1389-1425] Vasili I
[Moscow, 1425-1462] Vasili II
[*Moscow, 1432-1434*] Yuri IV
[?, 1434] Basil V Squint-Eye
[Galitzia, 1446-1447] Demetrius V Shemyaka
[Moscow, Russia, 1462-1505] Ivan III the Great
[?, 1498-1502] Demetrius VI the Grandson
[Moscow, Russia, 1505-1533] Vasili III
[Russia, 1533-1547] Ivan IV the Terrible, aka John IV the Awesome
*     From 1547, Ivan IV and his successors were known as Tsars of Russia.

 Tsardom of Russia

 RURIKOVICH
[Russia, 1547-1584] Ivan IV `the Terrible'
*     Simeon following was a fake tsar appointed by Ivan the Terrible.
[Russia, 1574-1576] Simeon Bekbulatovich, aka Semyon II Bek-Bulatovich; Khan of Kasimov Tatars, descendant of Genghis Khan.
[Russia, 1584-1598] Feodor I

 GODUNOV
[*Russia, 1598] Irina
[Russia, 1598-1605] Boris Feodorovich Godunov
[Russia, 1605] Feodor II, son of Boris Godunov

 ``Time of Troubles''
[Russia, 1605-1606] False Dmitri I, poss. son of Ivan the Terrible, or poss. the imposter Grigory Otrepyev
[Russia, 1606-1610] Vasily (IV) Vasilievich Shuisky
[Russia, 1608-1610?] False Dmitri II, `the Brigand of Tushino'

 VASA
The Poles invaded; their King's son was made sovereign of Russia.
[Russia, 1609-1613] Wladyslaw Vasa of Poland

 ROMANOV
The following Tsar was elected, founding the Romanov Dynasty
[Russia, 1613-1645] Michael I
[Russia, 1645-1676] Aleksey I
[Russia, 1676-1682] Feodor III, son of Aleksey I
[co-ruler, 1682-1696] Ivan V
The following Tsar was co-ruler until 1696; proclaimed himself and his heirs ``Emperor'' in 1721.
[Russia, 1682-1725] Peter I (the Great)
[Russia, 1725-1727] Catherine I
[Russia, 1727-1730] Peter II
[Russia, 1730-1740] Anne, daughter of Ivan V
The next Tsar was a Welfing.
[Russia, 1740-1741] Ivan VI
[Russia, 1741-1762] Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great

 OLDENBURG (Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp)
[Russia, 1762] Peter III
The next Tsarina was an agnatic descendent of Eriscot Anhalt of Swabia (999?-1060).
[Russia, 1762-1796] Catherine II (the Great)

 OLDENBURG, but took the surname ``ROMANOV''
[Russia, 1796-1801] Paul I
[Russia, 1801-1825] Alexander I, son of Paul I
[Russia, 1825-1855] Nicholas I
[Russia, 1855-1881] Alexander II
[Russia, 1881-1894] Alexander III
[Russia, 1894-1917] Nicholas II
[1917, very briefly] Michael, son of Alexander III
[in-exile, 1924-1938] Cyril (Kyrill)
[pretender, 1938-1992] Vladimir Kirillovitch
[pretender, 1978-present] Nicholas Romanovich
[pretender, 1992-present] Maria Vladimirovna

RUSSIA     or     RUSLAND     or     RUSSIAS     or     RUSSLAND     or     RUTHENIA     or     RYSSLAND

RUSSIANS

RUSSOCKI     or     RUSSOCKA

RUSSWURM

RUST

RUSTE

RUSTICUCCI

RUSTON

RUSTRINGEN

RUTANT

RUTENBERG     or     RUTENBERGE     or     RUTENBORGH     or     RUYTENBORCH

RUTGERS

RUTGHERS

RUTGHERSZOON

RUTH

RUTHALL

RUTHENBERG

RUTHENES     or     RUTHENIE

RUTHENIA     ---   (see also   RUSSIA)

RUTHENIANS

RUTHENUS

RUTHERFORD     or     RUTHERFURD     or     RUTHERFURDE

RUTHIN     or     RHUTHYN     or     RUTHYN

RUTHVEN

RUTHYN     ---   (see   RUTHIN)
 
RUTI

RUTILI

RUTILIUS

RUTLAND

RUTLEDGE

RUTTER

RUTULIANS     or     RUTULI

RUVIGNY

RUVO

RUWEEL

RUWIEL

RUXLEBEN

RUYCHROK

RUYN

RUYNE

RUYS

RUYSCHEN

RUYSSCHEN     or     RUIJSSEN

RUYTENBERG

RUYTENBORCH     or     RUIJTENBORCH     or     RUITENBERGH     ---   (see also   RUTENBERG)

RUYVEN

RUZBIHAN

RUZE

RUZUNNE

RWTH

RYAL

RYAN

RYAZAN     ---   (see   RJASAN)

RYBINSKA

RYBNICZ     ---   (see also   REIBNITZ)

RYCE     ---   (see   RICE)
 
RYCKE

RYCOTE

RYDBOHOLM

RYDDIE

RYDELL     ---   (see   RIDDELL)
 
RYDER     or     RIDER     ---   (see also   RYTHER)

RYDING

RYDWARE     ---   (see   RIDWARE)

RYE     or     RYES     ---   (see   RIE)
 
RYEHILL

RYERSON

RYFE

RYHILL

RYKE

RYLAND

RYLANSE

RYLE

RYLESTONE     ---   (see also   ROLLESTON)

RYLEY

RYM

RYME

RYMER

RYNDERS     or     REYNDERTS

RYNGEWOOD

RYNZZA

RYS

RYSE

RYSINSKA

RYSOM

RYSOME

RYSSE

RYSSEL     or     RIJSEL

RYSSLAND     ---   (see also   RUSSIA)

RYSTYN

RYTEVELD

RYTHER     or     RYDER

RYURIKOVNA     ---   (see also   KIEV)

RYVERS     ---   (see   RIVERS)
 
RYVES

RYVETT

RYZEMBERKA     or     RYZMBERKA     or     RYZMBURKA     ---   (see   RIESENBURG)

RZEHNICZ     or     RZCHNICZ     ---   (see also   VANCZURA)

RZEHNITZ

RZEPICZKY     or     REPICKA

RZHEVSKAYA

RZICZAN     or     RZICZANSKY


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