The PEDIGREE of
Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

 
     (this phylum is paraphyletic and should be three or four separate phyla; its classes are shown here in approximate order of cladistic closeness to Eumetazoa)

 "Child(ren)":       (to make Porifera monophyletic) Eumetazoa (Superbranch shown separately)   ;   Homoscleromorpha (siliceous sponges :: 84 species)   ;   Calcarea (calcareous sponges :: 400 species)   ;   Demospongiae (demosponges :: 10000+ species)   ;   Hexactinellida (glass sponges :: Symplasma :: 1000+ species)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
/-- Proto-Bacteria   +====> [ 43]
/-- Glycobacteria
/-- Eurybacteria
/-- Superphylum Endobacteria
/   | (skip this generation?)
/-- Phylum Actinobacteria
/-- Class Actinobacteridae
/-- (NN), a thermophilic Bacterium
/   | OR: (NN), a very special Archaeote   +====> [ 52]
/-- (NN), a Nucleated Cell
/-- Superphylum Endobacteria   +====> [ 46]
/   | (skip this generation?)
/-- Phylum Actinobacteria
/-- Class Actinobacteridae
/-- (NN), a thermophilic Bacterium
/-- Superdomain of Neomura
| or: (NN), a Bacterium
/-- Order Clostridiales   +====> [ 48]
/-- Family Clostridiaceae
/  \-- Clostridium
/  \-- (NN), a Cell Nucleus
/-- Domain of Eukaryotes  (2100 M BC)
/-- Glycobacteria   +====> [ 44]
/-- Gracilicutes
/-- Clade of Proteobacteria & Planctobacteria
/-- Phylum Proteobacteria (purple bacteria & kin)
/-- Class Alphaproteobacteria
/-- Order Rickettsiales
/  \-- Pre-Mitochondrion Bacteria
/-- Superempire Unikonta
/-- Empire of Opisthokonts (Fungi & Animals)
/-- Superkingdom Holozoa
/-- Kingdom of Animals
/-- Subkingdom of Metazoa (Multicellular Animals)  (700 M BC)
/   | or: prob. not Subkingdom Parazoa, q.v.
- Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
 

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FabPed Genealogy Vers. 80   ©   Jamie, 1997-2017