The PEDIGREE of
Ethnic groups of South Africa

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 
/-- A1b y-Haplogroup   +====> [ 31]
/-- BT y-Haplogroup
/-- CT y-Haplogroup
/-- DE y-Haplogroup  (63,200 BC)
/-- E y-Haplogroup (E-M96)  (51,100 BC)
/-- E-P147 y-Haplogroup  (47,800 BC)
/-- E-P177 y-Haplogroup  (40,400 BC)
/-- E-V38 y-Haplogroup  (38,200 BC)
/-- E-M2 y-Haplogroup  (12,000 BC)
\-- prob.  Iron Age in East Mediterranean  (1100? BC - ?)
| ( some missing generations)
/-- Metal smelting   +====> [ 2]
/-- Copper Metallurgy Stage 4
/  \-- Copper Metallurgy Stage 3   +====> [ 2]
/-- Bronze Age in Anatolia
\-- Woman of the Late Copper Age
/   \-- Woman of the Middle Copper Age   +====> [ 46]
/-- Early Use of Iron
\-- Invention of Steel
/   \-- Increasing need for wood in construction and as fuel
/-- (NN) of prehistory
/-- Genus Homo (H. habilis)   +====> [ 23]
/-- Homo ergaster  (2.4 M BC - 1.5 M BC)
/-- Homo antecessor  (1.1 M BC - 800,000 BC)
/   | (skip this generation?)
/-- Homo heidelbergensis
/-- Homo sapiens idaltu  (200,000 BC - ?)
/   | or: Homo heidelbergensis
/-- A00-T y-Haplogroup  (N.W. Africa? 234,000 BC)
/  \-- A y-Haplogroup (M91)
- Ethnic groups of South Africa
\-- L1 mtdna-macroHaplogroup
| or: (slight) L3 mtdna-Haplogroup
\-- Mitochondrial Eve
/-- Homo ergaster   +====> [ 24]
/-- Homo antecessor
/   | (skip this generation?)
/-- Homo heidelbergensis
/-- Homo sapiens idaltu  (200,000 BC - ?)
/-- Homo sapiens sapiens  (120,000 BC - ?)
\-- (NN) ... (NN)
| ( many missing generations)
 

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FabPed Genealogy Vers. 92   ©   Jamie, 1997-2018