The PEDIGREE of
Ethnic groups of South Africa

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 
/-- Homo sapiens sapiens   +====> [ 28]
/-- (NN) ... (NN)
/   | ( very many missing generations)
/-- Adam of Y-chromosome
/-- B-T y-ParaHaplogroup (M42 M94 M139)
/-- C-T y-ParaHaplogroup (M168 P9)
/-- D-E y-Haplogroup (M145)  (70,000 BC)
/-- E y-Haplogroup (P2 M35 or M40 M96)  (68,000 BC)
/-- E3 y-Haplogroup (Sry4065 M96 P29)
/-- E3a y-Haplogroup (P2 M2 P1)  (Cameroon ca 2000 BC)
\-- prob.  Iron Age in East Mediterranean  (1100? BC - ?)
| ( some missing generations)
/-- Metal smelting   +====> [ 2]
/-- Copper Metallurgy Stage 4
/  \-- Copper Metallurgy Stage 3   +====> [ 2]
/-- Bronze Age in Anatolia
\-- Woman of the Late Copper Age
/   \-- Woman of the Middle Copper Age   +====> [ 46]
/-- Early Use of Iron
\-- Invention of Steel
/   \-- Increasing need for wood in construction and as fuel
/-- (NN) of prehistory
/-- Homo antecessor   +====> [ 25]
/   | (skip this generation?)
/-- Homo heidelbergensis
/-- Homo sapiens idaltu  (200,000 BC - ?)
/-- Homo sapiens sapiens  (120,000 BC - ?)
/-- (NN) ... (NN)
/   | ( very many missing generations)
/-- Adam of Y-chromosome  (Africa 245,000 BC)
/  \-- A y-Haplogroup (M91)  (245,000 BC - 130,000 BC)
- Ethnic groups of South Africa
\-- L1 mtdna-macroHaplogroup
| or: (slight) L3 mtdna-Haplogroup
\-- Mitochondrial Eve
/-- Homo ergaster   +====> [ 24]
/-- Homo antecessor
/   | (skip this generation?)
/-- Homo heidelbergensis
/-- Homo sapiens idaltu  (200,000 BC - ?)
/-- Homo sapiens sapiens  (120,000 BC - ?)
\-- (NN) ... (NN)
| ( many missing generations)
 

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FabPed Genealogy Vers. 80   ©   Jamie, 1997-2017